๐Ÿค‘ Oriental rug - Wikipedia

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There is little archaeological evidence to support any theory about the origin of the pile-woven carpet. Where exactly these carpets were woven is unknown. In the early fourteenth century, Marco Polo wrote about the central Anatolian province of "Turcomania" in his account of his travels :. Loop weaving is done by pulling the weft strings over a gauge rod, creating loops of thread facing the weaver. The rod is then either removed, leaving the loops closed, or the loops are cut over the protecting rod, resulting in a rug very similar to a genuine pile rug. The pile consists of hand-spun or machine-spun strings of yarn, which are knotted into the warp and weft foundation. Probably the oldest existing texts referring to carpets are preserved in cuneiform writing on clay tablets from the royal archives of the kingdom of Mari , from the 2nd millennium BC. The explorer Mark Aurel Stein found flat-woven kilims dating to at least the fourth or fifth century AD in Turpan , East Turkestan, China, an area which still produces carpets today. Other fragments woven in symmetrical as well as asymmetrical knots have been found in Dura-Europos in Syria , [21] and from the At-Tar caves in Iraq , [22] dated to the first centuries AD. The field patterns of the Konya carpets are mostly geometric, and small in relation to the carpet size. Cotton is used for the foundation of the rug, but also in the pile. Already the earliest known written sources refer to carpets as gifts given to, or required from, high-ranking persons. The dyeing process involves the preparation of the yarn in order to make it susceptible for the proper dyes by immersion in a mordant. Wool is used for warp, weft, and pile, the yarn is crudely spun, and the fragments are woven with the asymmetric knot associated with Persian and far-eastern carpets. The design of the carpet already shows the basic arrangement of what was to become the standard oriental carpet design: A field with repeating patterns, framed by a main border in elaborate design, and several secondary borders. Rudenko, the discoverer of the Pazyryk carpet. Mainly, animal wool from sheep and goats is used, occasionally also from camels. Its characteristics and quality vary from each area to the next, depending on the breed of sheep, climatic conditions, pasturage, and the particular customs relating to when and how the wool is shorn and processed. It seems likely that knotted-pile carpets have been produced by people who were already familiar with extra-weft wrapping techniques. The fibers of wool, cotton, and silk are spun either by hand or mechanically by using spinning wheels or industrial spinning machines to produce the yarn. More often, wool said to be camel's wool turns out to be dyed sheep wool. It is unknown whether these were flatweaves or pile weaves, as no detailed technical information is provided in the texts. The technique has probably evolved separately at different places and times. These rare findings demonstrate that all the skills and techniques of dyeing and carpet weaving were already known in western Asia before the first century AD. The technique of weaving carpets further developed into a technique known as extra-weft wrapping weaving, a technique which produces soumak , and loop woven textiles. Silk pile is less resistant to mechanical stress, thus, all-silk piles are often used as wall hangings, or pillow tapestry. Cotton forms the foundation of warps and wefts of the majority of modern rugs. Silk pile can be used to highlight special elements of the design in Turkmen rugs , but more expensive carpets from Kashan, Qum, Nain, and Isfahan in Persia, and Istanbul and Hereke in Turkey, have all-silk piles. Their main borders often contain kufic ornaments. Examples range in size from pillow to large, room-sized carpets, and include carrier bags, floor coverings, decorations for animals, Islamic prayer rugs 'Jai'namaz' , Jewish Torah ark covers parochet , and Christian altar covers. Yarns are characterized as S-twist or Z-twist according to the direction of spinning see diagram. In the light of ancient sources and archaeological discoveries, it seems highly likely that the pile-woven carpet developed from one of the extra-weft wrapping weaving techniques, and was first woven by settled people. The earliest surviving carpet fragments are spread over a wide geographic area, and a long time span. The dyed yarn is then left to dry, exposed to air and sunlight.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH} In most oriental rugs, the pile is of sheep's wool. Camel wool is occasionally used in Middle Eastern rugs. Every three to five rows, pieces of unspun wool, strips of cloth and leather are woven in. Silk is more often used in rugs of Eastern Turkestan and Northwestern China, but these rugs tend to be more coarsely woven. It would be good if 5 women who weave carpets [12] were staying with her. Silk from silk worms is used for representational rugs. It is also debated whether pile-knotted carpets were initially woven by nomads who tried to imitate animal pelts as tent-floor coverings, [33] or if they were a product of settled peoples. The different knot types in carpets from locations as distant from each other like the Pazyryk carpet symmetric , the East Turkestan and Lop Nur alternate single-weft knots , the At-Tar symmetric, asymmetric, asymmetric loop knots , and the Fustat fragments looped-pile, single, asymmetric knots suggest that the technique as such may have evolved at different places and times. The spring shear produces wool of finer quality. Hermitage Museum. With the exception of Mamluk carpets, nearly all the rugs produced in the countries of the rug belt use "Z" anti-clockwise spun and "S" clockwise -plied wool. The best and handsomest carpets in the world are wrought here, and also silks of crimson and other rich colours. He and the Moroccan merchant Ibn Battuta mention Aksaray as a major rug weaving center in the early-to-midth century. Nearly all carpet fragments show different patterns and ornaments. Knotted pile woven carpets were likely produced by people who were already familiar with extra-weft wrapping techniques. Silk is an expensive material, and has been used for representative carpets of the Mamluk, Ottoman, and Safavid courts. Oriental rugs were also made in South Africa from the early s to mid s in the village of Ilinge close to Queenstown. Especially larger carpets are more likely to lie flat on the floor, whereas wool tends to shrink unevenly, and carpets with a woolen foundation may buckle when wet. Materials used in carpet weaving and the way they are combined vary in different rug weaving areas. Coming from Persia, Polo travelled from Sivas to Kayseri. Cotton can be spun more tightly than wool, and tolerates more tension, which makes cotton a superior material for the foundation of a rug. The beginning of carpet weaving remains unknown, as carpets are subject to use, deterioration, and destruction by insects and rodents. Among these fragments, some show depictings of animals, like various stags sometimes arranged in a procession, recalling the design of the Pazyryk carpet or a winged mythical creature. Nomads who cannot afford to buy cotton on the market use wool for warps and wefts, which are also traditionally made of wool in areas where cotton was not a local product. There are documentary records of carpets being used by the ancient Greeks. Yak and horse hair have been used in Far Eastern, but rarely in Middle Eastern rugs. With the emergence of Islam, the westward migration of nomadic groups began to change Near Eastern history. Rug fragments were also found in the Lop Nur area, and are woven in symmetrical knots, with interwoven wefts after each row of knots, with a striped design, and various colours. Since the High Middle Ages , oriental rugs have been an integral part of their cultures of origin, as well as of the European and, later on, the North American culture. Silk pile carpets are often exceptionally fine, with a short pile and an elaborate design. People from different cultures, countries, racial groups and religious faiths are involved in the production of oriental rugs. Similar patterns are arranged in diagonal rows: Hexagons with plain, or hooked outlines; squares filled with stars, with interposed kufic-like ornaments; hexagons in diamonds composed of rhomboids, rhomboids filed with stylized flowers and leaves. Usually, sheep are shorn in spring and fall. An oriental rug is woven by hand on a loom, with warps, wefts, and pile made mainly of natural fibers like wool, cotton, and silk. The colours blue, red, green, to a lesser extent also white, brown, yellow are subdued, frequently two shades of the same colour are opposed to each other. The direction in which the yarn is spun is called twist. Eight fragments were found in by F. Rows of horned quadrupeds placed opposite to each other, or birds beside a tree can be recognized on some fragments. It was discovered in the late s by the Russian archeologist Sergei Rudenko and his team. The oldest known hand knotted rug which is nearly completely preserved, and can, therefore, be fully evaluated in every technical and design aspect is the Pazyryk carpet , dated to the 5th century BC. Seljuq Period, 13th century. It has survived in a Tibetan monastery and was removed by monks fleeing to Nepal during the Chinese cultural revolution. Dyestuffs are then added to the yarn which remains in the dyeing solution for a defined time. Usually the pile threads are dyed with various natural or synthetic dyes. Amongst its cities are those of Kogni , Kaisariah , and Sevasta. Its tensile strength has been used in silk warps, but silk also appears in the carpet pile. Generally, handspun single plies are spun with a Z-twist, and plying is done with an S-twist. It includes countries such as northern China , Tibet , Turkey , Iran , the Maghreb in the west, the Caucasus in the north, and India and Pakistan in the south. A near-complete carpet of this kind is now at the Museum of Islamic Art, Doha. Goat hair is mainly used for fastening the borders, or selvages, of Baluchi and Turkmen rugs , since it is more resistant to abrasion. They show a fine weave of about asymmetrical knots per square decimeter [20]. A number of knives was found in the graves of women of a settled community in southwest Turkestan. It is often dyed in black, or used in its natural colour. Pliny the Elder wrote in nat. {PARAGRAPH}{INSERTKEYS}Oriental carpets can be pile woven or flat woven without pile, using various materials such as silk, wool, and cotton. The knives are remarkably similar to those used by Turkmen weavers for trimming the pile of a carpet. Once the weaving has finished, the rug is further processed by fastening its borders, clipping the pile to obtain an even surface, and washing, which may use added chemical solutions to modify the colours. Riefstahl in By their original size Riefstahl reports a carpet up to 6 metres 20 feet long , the Konya carpets must have been produced in town manufactories, as looms of this size cannot be set up in a nomadic or village home. Circa BC. In representative carpets, metal threads made of gold or silver are woven in. They are now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. Fragments of pile rugs from findspots in north-eastern Afghanistan , reportedly originating from the province of Samangan , have been carbon dated to a time span from the turn of the second century to the early Sasanian period. Different areas of a sheep's fleece yield different qualities of wool, depending on the ratio between the thicker and stiffer sheep hair and the finer fibers of the wool. The Pazyryk Carpet.