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They were combinations of soldiers, explorers and missionaries.
These non-native immigrants originally entered and settled in ancient Kumeyaay village of Kosa'aay (Cosoy) known today as Old Town in San Diego, CA, located at the base of Presidio Hill.
In the 1955 movie "Seven Cities of Gold," by Luis Carvacho a California historical drama about Portola's 1769 land exploration into the Kumeyaay tribal Indian village of Kosa'aay (present day Old Town San Diego)In the 1984 video game "Seven Cities of Gold," the player takes the role of a late-15th century explorer for Spain, sets sail for the New World in order to explore the map and interact with the natives to win gold and please the Spanish court.
The name derives from the "seven cities" of Quivira and Cíbola that were said to be located somewhere in the Southwest United States (wikipedia.org).
It was under the strong influences of the "California Mission Period" (1769-1823) that some of the tribes took on the "Mission Indian" namesake, and their ethnographic art was labeled "Mission Indian" art this name association continues today and the magnificent Mission Indian juncus basketry is highly coveted by collectors and museums.
BY 1822 the Kumeyaay had lost control of all their prime COASTAL TRIBAL LANDS (map) to the Spanish; the Spanish had been defeated by the Mexicans in the Mexican War of Independence (18101821); and San Diego had officially come under Mexican rule.
A dozen single Women wait anxiously in the Caribbean as a man a day arrives via helicopter - each man chooses which woman he would like to be "coupled " with, until they are all paired up and the fun begins. More than 6,000 naked people--all willing to bare all for Spencer Tunick in the name of art.
With little to no thought given to hardship of survival, the Kumeyaay were able to turn their thoughts to ways to improve their life. Traditional Kumeyaay food sources such as acorns and pine seeds, for example, were placed in these holes, then smashed and ground into meal using a mano stone tool.Kumeyaay resistance more often took the form of non-cooperation (in forced labor), return to their homelands (desertion of forced relocation), and raids on mission livestock (wikipedia.org).MISSION SAN DIEGO DE ALCALA, March 26, 1776 Captain Fernando Rivera y Moncada violated ecclesiastical asylum at Mission San Diego de Alcalá on March 26, 1776 when he forcibly removed a 'neophyte' in direct defiance of the padres.The California Indians constructed their graineries and shelters out of willow tree branches because willow contains salicin, a natural insect repelint that means whatever food and supplies they stored in willow would remain relatively bug free.SPANISH ARRIVAL (map graphic) 1776, it is estimated the California Indian population was over 150,000 strong up until which time the Kumeyaay had been living off the land in harmony with nature, developing their unique North American tribal culture over THOUSANDS of years, including their native Yuman (Hokan) languages.