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This article reviews various project structures that impact or provide governance to the project and that require key involvement from the program manager and the systems engineer.
These structures include: the structure of the organization itself (functional, project, matrix, and specialized teams, such as Integrated Product Teams (IPTs), Change Control Boards (CCBs), and Engineering Review Boards (ERBs).
The PMO may also provide training and monitor compliance (PMI 2013).
This article addresses the influences on governance relationships between the project manager and the systems engineer.
In a function-structured organization, workers are grouped by the functions they perform. Reprinted with permission of the IEEE Computer Society.
The systems engineering functions can be: (1) distributed among some of the functional organizations, (2) centralized within one organization or (3) a hybrid, with some of the functions being distributed to the projects, others centralized and others are distributed to functional organization. All other rights are reserved by the copyright owner.
Requirement-driven projects are more likely to have a management structure in which the systems engineer plays the central role, as depicted in Figure 2 of the Organizing the Team section in Team Capability.
To satisfy the product requirements, the systems engineer is responsible for the making technical decisions and making the appropriate technical trades.Projects are one-time, transient events that are initiated to accomplish a specific purpose and are terminated when the project objectives are achieved.Sometimes, on small projects, the same person accomplishes the work activities of both project management and systems engineering.Very large projects may have project management and systems engineering offices with a designated project manager and a designated lead systems engineer.Projects are typically organized in one of three ways: (1) by functional structure, (2) by project structure, and (3) by a matrix structure (see Systems Engineering Organizational Strategy for a fourth structure and related discussion).